Bronchitis is an inflammatory lesion of the bronchial mucosa, as a result of which the drainage function of the bronchial tree is impaired.
With illiterate treatment, it enters a chronic stage and may be complicated by pneumonia, so it is important to know the causes of its occurrence, the first symptoms and the basics of bronchitis treatment at home in adults.
Damage and inflammation of the bronchial tree can occur as an independent, isolated process (primary bronchitis) or develop as a complication against the background of existing chronic diseases and infections (secondary bronchitis).
Damage to the mucous epithelium of the bronchi disrupts the secretion, the motor activity of the cilia and the process of cleansing the bronchi. They share acute and chronic bronchitis, differing in etiology, pathogenesis and treatment.
The most common causes of bronchitis are etoviruses, various bacteria and intracellular parasites. In some cases, the cause may be exposure to toxic gases or allergens. Therefore, the high incidence of bronchitis is caused, first of all, by a variety of factors that can provoke its appearance.
Among them are the most popular:
- Viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of the respiratory system (influenza, parainfluenza, laryngitis, pharyngitis).
- Damage to the bronchus by toxins, for example, when smoking or when working with chemicals.
- Dust pollution of the bronchi (most often found in miners).
- Exposure to allergens contained in the air we breathe (for example, wool, pollen, etc.).
The main mechanism of development of bronchitis caused by infectious pathogens - spread with air or sputum of the pathogen deep into the respiratory system. Infectious diseases most often cause an acute form of bronchitis.
Acute and chronic
Acute bronchitis is an inflammatory process of the bronchial mucosa, resulting from a variety of reasons. These include infectious agents, viruses, chemical, physical or allergic factors. With bronchitis, the tissues along the walls of the airwayways swell up and secrete a large amount of mucus.
Chronic bronchitis is a progressive inflammation of the bronchi, manifested by coughing. It is common to talk about the chronic nature of the process if the cough lasts for at least 3 months. per year for 2 consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is the most common form of chronic nonspecific lung disease, with a tendency to increase.
The most important symptom of bronchitis in adults has always been and remains a cough. In addition, there is another symptom:
- temperature increase: significant or minor;
- spasm of the throat, soreness;
- wheezing, difficulty breathing.
If you find these signs, you need to solve the problem of how to treat bronchitis so that it does not bring complications.
Symptoms of bronchitis
In case of bronchitis, cough is the main symptom. It is important to understand that in fact cough is a protective function of the body. In fact, it is an intensified exhalation, with the help of which the body tries to get rid of pathogenic agents that have entered the airways (in this case, viruses, bacteria).
In addition, an adult feels general malaise, loss of appetite, fatigue, fever. All these are manifestations of general intoxication of the body caused by inflammation of the bronchi. The temperature usually reaches high values - 38 -39⁰С. But sometimes it can be lower, it depends on the individual reactivity of the organism.
As a rule, the cough is initially dry, but after a few days it becomes productive (wet), at which sputum separation occurs. Expectorant mucus when coughing may be clear or have a yellowish gray or greenish tint.
With a significant damage to the respiratory tract, small vessels of the lungs can be damaged, as a result of which there may be blood impurities in the sputum. The period of acute symptoms with bronchitis usually lasts 3-4 days. Severe pain in the chest is also possible. This is especially true during the cough period. Often, patients complain of excessive sweating. When the first symptoms appear, it is important to think about how to treat bronchitis and which drugs to use for this.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
In chronic bronchitis, cough with a sparse sputum discharge, shortness of breath during physical exertion can be constant symptoms that accompany the patient throughout life.
In this case, the worsening of bronchitis is said if there is a significant increase in the above symptoms: increased cough, increased sputum discharge, increased shortness of breath, temperature, etc.
Bronchitis in adults, especially acute, rarely occurs in isolation. Most often it is combined with the phenomena of rhinitis (rhinitis), tracheitis. It certainly has an effect on the overall clinical picture.
Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis
It is characterized by a long expiration, accompanied by a whistle, dry wheezing and the need to use the auxiliary muscles during breathing. Periodically intense cough gives way to the weak. Body temperature values may fluctuate.
Obstructive bronchitis in adults is especially tedious physically, since the auxiliary muscles are involved in the act of breathing, there is constant tension in the muscles of the chest, back, neck, etc.
Treatment of bronchitis in adults
First of all it is a bed rest and plentiful drink. Acute bronchitis is well treated with sufficient moisture (60%) and temperature (18-20 ° C) in the room where the patient is located, regular intake of warm drinks (up to 4 liters per day), prevention of temperature fluctuations of inhaled air.
How and what to treat bronchitis in adults is a very serious question, because the result and prevention of complications depends on the effectiveness of the treatment.
- Initially, you need to give up smoking, get rid of bad habits, stop being in conditions with harmful environmental factors. All this will increase the maximum effectiveness of treatment.
- At the second stage, drugs are prescribed that expand the bronchi, stimulating receptors: Salbutamol, Bromid, Ipratropium Bromid, Terbutalin, Fenoterol or others. This stage is primarily intended to solve breathing problems and acute states. If necessary, use antipyretic drugs (ibuprofen, paracetamol).
- The third step is the appointment of mucolytics and expectorants, which help make sputum less thick and viscous. These drugs contribute to its rapid discharge from the respiratory tract. Herbal medicines can be used - Thermopsis, Doctor Mom, althea root, licorice, etc., or synthetic - Lasolvan, Ambrobene, Bromhexin, Acetylcysteine, etc.
- At the fourth stage of treatment, only antibiotics remain. In them there is a need in the case of a bacterial infection of the bronchi, or the development of complications.
Treatment of acute bronchitis should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made. The earlier therapeutic measures are taken, the less chance of the development of its complications. To cure bronchitis should consult a specialist. The choice of appropriate drugs depends on the severity of the process and on the duration of this disease.
How to treat bronchitis at home
Inhalation with bronchitis at home is a good and effective way to treat a disease and alleviate its symptoms, especially when it is not possible to constantly visit the physiotherapeutic room.
- Steam inhalation is a very affordable method of treatment at home. To carry it out, you need to take a container, put suitable herbs on the bottom, for example, raspberries, linden and coltsfoot, pour all over with water and bring to a boil. Breathing is necessary through a thick paper funnel.
- Inhalation with propolis - bring the water in the pan to a boil, add 3-5 ml of alcoholic propolis tincture and breathe over the steam for 5-15 minutes. You can make inhalation with pure propolis - to do this, you need to heat the water in a large capacity, put a metal dish with carefully crushed propolis - a small piece, 50 grams, and breathe over the steam.
- With strong pain in the chest and dry cough, it is very useful to make inhalation on the basis of sea salt, 1 tablespoon of which should be dissolved in 1 liter of water. If there is no salt, then you can replace it with an artificial analogue, which is prepared from 1 teaspoon of table salt, the same amount of soda and 4-5 drops of iodine per 1 liter of water.
- Collecting herbs for inhalation. 50 g of camomile herb, medicinal sage, eucalyptus leaf, licorice, calendula. sequence pour liter of boiling water, insist in a thermos for 2 hours, strain.
For inhalation, special devices (inhalers) and devices (nebulizers) are often used, having a special nozzle, through which, in fact, inhalation of therapeutic vapors and aerosols occurs. But in the absence of such special means, at home, you can use the available items of kitchen utensils - a kettle, a saucepan, or any other container and towel.
The question of the advisability of prescribing antibiotics for bronchitis is still debatable. Many indicate that these drugs destroy the intestinal microflora, inhibit immunity. But in the absence of antibacterial therapy, the infection from the bronchi will pass to the lung tissue, pleura with the development of pneumonia and pleurisy. Prolonged fever - 3 days or more, accompanied by cough, shortness of breath, requires the appointment of antibiotics.
For the treatment of bronchitis in adults, antibiotics are the drugs of choice:
- penicillins (Amoxicillin, Flemoxin, Augmentin),
- cephalosporins (cefixime, cefazolin, claforan, cefuroxime, cefaclor),
- macrolides (Vilpramen, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin, Erythromycin, Macropen, Rovamycin),
- fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Moxifloxacin), etc.
You can use the drug with antibiotics for local use - Bioparox. The introduction of antibiotics into the body can be carried out orally, parenterally or by inhalation, for example, with a nebulizer.
Please note that antibacterial agents are prescribed by no means in all cases. Therefore, the selection of a specific drug should be approached carefully, based on the spectrum of action and the recommendations of the doctor.