Mycoplasma in women - microorganisms that are intermediate between bacteria, fungi and viruses. Mycoplasmas are usually attached to epithelial cells - the mucous membrane of the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. Parasitic in host cells.
At an appointment with a gynecologist, even an absolutely healthy woman can get her hands on the results of tests where mycoplasma is found. Conditionally pathogenic flora, which doctors take into account only under the condition of high titers, is quite common.
If the growth of the flora is very active and there are prerequisites for a decrease in the immune system, then a diagnosis is made - mycoplasmosis. Let's take a look at what it is and what treatment methods these microorganisms can overcome.
Why does mycoplasma occur in women, and what is it? Mycoplasma is considered the smallest form of organisms belonging to the mycoplasmataceae family. It refers to something between unicellular organisms and multicellular viruses and bacteria.
Despite this, scientists are more inclined to consider them (mycoplasmas) viruses, because they do not have a cell membrane. In the family mycoplasmataceae, there are two kinds of microorganisms mycoplasma and ureaplasma, which can cause the development of various diseases.
The source of infection is a person with a manifest or asymptomatic mycoplasmosis. Infection is transmitted by airborne (with respiratory mycoplasmosis), sexual (with urogenital mycoplasmosis) and vertical (from mother to fetus - more often with urogenital mycoplasmosis) ways.
The incubation period of the disease is from 3 days to 5 weeks, an average of 15-19 days.
Symptoms of mycoplasma in women
As a rule, the presence of mycoplasmas in the body is characterized by erased low-symptom forms. Approximately 10-20% of women do not feel any obvious symptoms of mycoplasma, while a stressful situation, such as abortion or severe hypothermia, does not activate the infection, often leading to quite serious complications.
Often the acute form of the disease is preceded by an incubation period, and only 7–10 days after infection can appear the first signs of mycoplasmosis:
- With the defeat of the external genital parasites accumulate in the mucous membrane of the vagina and urethra. In this situation, patients usually do not show any complaints. Sometimes the occurrence of a slight itching of the external genital organs and the appearance of scanty colorless discharge from the genital tract.
- With the penetration of infection into the internal genital organs, pains in the lower abdomen, burning and itching during urination, abundant, sometimes purulent, discharge from the genital tract.
Urogenital mycoplasmosis in women is manifested in the form of:
- bacterial vaginosis (gardnerella);
- mycoplasma urethritis;
- inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries;
- often mycoplasmosis is combined with chlamydia and ureaplasmosis.
The treachery of mycoplasma in women is that the disease for many years can be completely asymptomatic. During this period, the woman is a carrier of the infection and can transmit it to her sexual partners.
The diagnosis of urogenital mycoplasmosis is based on the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method, in which mycoplasma DNA is determined. A classical culture method is also used, with seeding of the material on a liquid medium and subsequent subculture to a solid one.
Mycoplasmas are determined by colony fluorescence after the addition of specific anti-sera. Serological methods for the detection of mycoplasmas - the reaction of complement fixation (RSK) and the reaction of indirect agglutination (RNGA).
As a material for laboratory tests, a smear from the cervix, the vestibule of the vagina, the urethra and the anus, and the first morning urine sample are taken from women.
Treatment of mycoplasma in women
When diagnosing mycoplasma in women, a treatment regimen is prescribed by the attending physician, consisting of complex therapy, including:
- Antibacterial drugs (due to the resistance of mycoplasma to penicillin, antibiotics for mycoplasmosis are used from the tetracycline group, and macrolides are used; the course of this treatment is up to 2 weeks);
- Local treatment (suppositories, douching);
- Immunomodulators (these drugs enhance the effect of drugs, used in the treatment of cycloferon or licopid);
- Observance of the diet recommended by the doctor;
Unfortunately, the human body is not able to develop immunity to this infection, and therefore both sexual partners need to be treated with drugs at the same time. On average, the course of treatment for mycoplasmosis is 10 days. Then, after 2 or 3 weeks, the patient is assigned bacposev, and after 30 days - PCR.
In the treatment of chronic forms of great importance is immunooriented and local therapy. The goal of immuno-oriented therapy is the correction of the immunodeficiency state, which caused the chronic course of the illness and intensified against its background. It is assigned according to the immunogram parameters.
Local therapy is carried out simultaneously with systemic antibiotic therapy, for 5-7 days. Etmotropic, anti-inflammatory agents and enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc.) are usually prescribed in the form of installations or using cotton-gauze tampons for treating the vagina. Immediately after its completion, it is recommended to undergo a course of treatment with probiotics to restore the microflora.
The prolonged course of mycoplasmosis without symptoms leads to the development of endometritis - inflammation of the uterine lining. In women with mycoplasmal endometritis, miscarriages and missed pregnancies are frequent.
From the uterus M. hominis and M. genitalium can spread to its appendages with the development of adnexitis. Then spikes appear in the tubes, which can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.