Usually, doctors do not advise to independently decipher urine tests. Firstly, any business should be done by a specialist, and secondly, it is important to evaluate all indicators in the complex. But all the rules, as you know, there are exceptions.
And when the urine analysis of a child or an adult showed the presence of nitrites, a bacterial infection of the urinary tract should almost certainly be expected.
The following bacteria can be the causative agents: Prоteus, Klebsiella, Escherihiacoli, Salmonella, Citrobacter, possibly Pseudomonas, enterococci, staphylococcus. Often, nitrites in the urine are detected on the background of cystitis, pyelonephritis, intestinal infections, vaginitis.
What are nitrites and where do they come from?
Nitrates and pathogens form nitrites in the urine. This means that if pathogenic bacteria enter the body, they convert nitrates (which enter the urinary tract with plant foods and can normally be contained in the urine) into nitrites.
Thus, the determination of nitrites in the urine suggests that a bacterial infection develops in the urogenital tract. What exactly - can only say a urologist, after all the necessary tests and research (urine culture on the flora, pelvic ultrasound, a blood test, urine analysis according to Nechyporenko).
Who is at risk?
The maximum likelihood of occurrence of nitrites in the urine of people belonging to such risk groups:
- female gender due to the structure of the urogenital system;
- old people, especially over 70 years;
- men with prostate adenoma;
- patients with progressive form of diabetes;
- women in position;
- patients after urological operations.
How to pass the analysis?
When examining urine, you must follow some important rules:
- It is necessary to hand over the morning urine, it is the most informative.
- Antibiotic therapy should be canceled or interrupted 3 days before the test, otherwise the results will not be reliable.
- To identify the pathology, experts recommend before the analysis there is cabbage, spinach or carrots.
- It is necessary to investigate the first portion of urine, since microorganisms reduce NO3 to NO2 within a certain period of time, and their content is minimal in fresh urine.
When collecting urine for analysis, it is necessary to take into account the risk of contamination of the sample; therefore, it is necessary to perform a thorough toilet of the external genitals. Urine should be collected in a sterile container, which can be purchased at a pharmacy or obtained in the laboratory.
If it is necessary to collect baby urine for analysis, special attention should be paid to the purity of the sample. In no case can not collect it from the diaper, because there it is guaranteed to be infected with bacteria and foreign matter. It is also extremely important to observe the hygiene of the genitals of the child, especially in boys - getting an infection from under the foreskin can lead to the fact that the entire sample will be spoiled and the analysis will have to be repeated.
Causes of urine nitrite
Why do nitrites appear in urine, what does it mean? A positive nitrite test indicates that a significant amount of bacteria is present in the urine. Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, are more likely to give a positive test.
Based on the above, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- The presence of nitrites in the urine almost always indicates the presence of an infectious process in the urinary tract. This may be cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, inflammation of the ureter, etc.
- Their absence does not always exclude bacterial damage to the urinary tract.
In some cases, it is possible to obtain a false-negative test for nitrites:
- urine is not long enough in contact with bacteria;
- high concentration of vitamin C or urobilin in the urine;
- bacteria that cause colonization of the urinary tract, do not have enzymes capable of converting nitrates to nitrites.
Women are more likely to be exposed to bacteria in the bladder, as they have a shorter urethra. It is easier for bacteria to enter the bladder. Some of the fair sex can face this problem 3 times a year.
Deviation rates during pregnancy
Ladies in a position vulnerable to various bacteria. If nitrites are found in a urine in a pregnant patient, the doctors immediately sound the alarm. Any diseases of the genitourinary sphere during this period threaten the normal development of the baby, in general, the bearing of the crumbs. Intrauterine infection is dangerous not only for the life of the child, but can also be fatal for a woman.
Pregnant women are regularly scheduled for urine testing. But not always research helps to identify the inflammatory process in the early stages. For this reason, women in position are encouraged to regularly test for nitrites in the urine at home.
Nitrite in the urine of a child - what to do?
If tests have found nitrites in the child's urine and repeated tests have confirmed this, the doctor will first send the baby to other examinations to make sure that the infection process is present. When such chemicals are still found in the body, it is worthwhile to consult with the pediatrician regarding the list of products that are now contraindicated in children. If there are no allergic reactions, it is necessary to focus on the use of dietary meat and dairy products.
Huge quantities of nitrites can form several bacterial rows, including staphylococci and enterococci - and this, in turn, gives rise to a new and more complex infection. To identify them, urine is taken for re-seeding.
If your child is diagnosed with bacteriuria (an infectious disease), then the amount of nitrites in his urine exceeds the norm tenfold. In this case, a week course of antibiotics is prescribed as a treatment; they do not allow the infection to spread to the entire urogenital system and kidneys. In addition, as a supplement to the treatment can be assigned a specific diet based on the use of boiled vegetables and protein foods.
What to do?
Nitrite in urine patients in 8% of the total mass of cases indicate a chronic course of pyelonephritis, about 30% of the pathology is asymptomatic. Cystitis accounts for the lion's share of an increased amount of nitrites in the urine of patients. Every fifth woman has ever encountered this problem at least once in her life. Pathology is accompanied by pain and pain when urinating, an increase in body temperature. Complicated clinical picture of inflammation of the ureter, it occurs in only 5% of the total mass of patients.
- An accurate diagnosis will be made by a doctor, it is strictly forbidden to begin therapy yourself!
Specific therapy depends on the disease diagnosed. In most cases, the patient is prescribed antibiotics that destroy pathogens, antispasmodics, relieving discomfort. The further treatment plan varies, taking into account the degree of lesion of the excretory system, the general condition of the victim.