The front is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the frontal sinus, which is part of the anterior base of the skull and is located next to very important anatomical structures - the orbit and the anterior cranial fossa. As clinical practice shows, such a proximity can lead to serious complications of frontal sinusitis.
Acute frontitis proceeds with signs of general intoxication. Usually, when the disease is acute, frontal sinusitis symptoms appear sharply, usually after the manifestation of any nasopharyngeal infections. Chronic frontal sinusitis may occur with alternating phases of remission and exacerbation. In the period of remission, the symptoms practically do not appear, and in the period of exacerbation they are similar to those that occur during the acute process, but perhaps less pronounced.
In addition, in the chronic form, there may be redness of the nasal shells, an unpleasant smell of nasal discharge, as well as signs of involvement of the lacrimal-nasal canal and redness of the corners of the eyes.
The reasonsWhy is the frontal development, and what is it? Bacterial and viral infections (influenza, acute respiratory infections), immune disorders and a number of diseases most often contribute to the occurrence of the disease:
- infection with streptococcus group A;
- allergic rhinitis or asthma;
- dust and pollution;
- stay in smoky rooms;
- untreated caries;
- anatomical anomalies in the structure of the frontal sinuses;
- swimming (especially diving);
- cystic fibrosis;
- Cartagener syndrome;
- syndrome of ciliary immobility.
Among other things, the factors contributing to the development of frontal sinusitis are:
- chronic vasomotor rhinitis;
- injuries of the nose and foreign bodies;
- professional barotrauma;
- curvature of the nasal septum;
- narrowness and large length of the frontal-nasal canal;
- disorders of the immune system;
- total depletion of the body;
- bad blowing your nose;
- tumors and cysts of the other sinuses and nasal cavity;
- work in hazardous production;
- regular stay in dusty, polluted rooms;
- frequent hypothermia head.
There are frontitis by type of inflammation:
- Catarrhal frontitis of an acute course - characterized by nasal congestion, a feeling of heaviness and pressure in the forehead, can either go without complications, or go into the second stage.
- Purulent sinusitis of an acute course - purulent contents are formed and accumulate in the frontal sinuses, which leads to a significant deterioration of the patient's condition, up to loss of consciousness.
Many people think about how to treat frontal sinusitis at home. Prescribing treatment therapy is allowed only to a qualified doctor. You will definitely need to take strong medication to eliminate the infection. Otherwise, chronic frontitis will gradually form.
Signs of the disease in this case will be less pronounced, but the disease will worsen. The patient will suffer from nasal discharge, congestion, headaches.
Symptoms of frontalitis
The main symptom of acute frontal sinusitis in adults is a very severe headache, which increases with the bowing of the head, physical exercise and pressure on the frontal lobe of the nose. Also, the patient may complain of other symptoms of frontal sinusitis:
- swelling of the surrounding soft tissue;
- temperature rise;
- general weakness;
- loss of appetite.
The peculiarity of pain in acute form is their cyclicity. As long as the outflow of fluid is disturbed - the pain is unbearable, it can be given to the temporal part of the head or to the eyes. As soon as the sinus is released from the accumulated mucus, the pain subsides. Chronic frontal sinitis begins about two months after the onset of the acute process. Usually, the chronic disease becomes from the wrong treatment, or as a result of a frank disregard for the disease state.
Chronic frontal sinusitis
The following symptoms are characteristic of this form of the disease:
- significant violation of smell, in some cases, the patient generally ceases to distinguish odors,
- if the inflammatory process has spread to the superciliary sinuses, in the morning the patient may notice swelling of the superciliary area and eyelids,
- persistent cough that does not go away even after taking the medication,
- fast fatiguability.
Chronic frontal sinusitis often leads to the appearance of polyps in the nasal cavity, which interfere with nasal breathing.
How is the diagnosis?
Diagnosis of frontal disease is usually not difficult. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinical manifestations of the disease. To confirm the diagnosis, radiography of the frontal sinuses is performed.
The sign of frontal sinusitis on the x-ray is a darkening of the sinus on the side of the lesion (in the right-hand process, on the right, in a bilateral process, on both sides). In case of chronic frontal sinusitis, an MRI or CT scan, endoscopy of the nose and sinuses may be needed, as well as seeding of the sinuses in the flora.
Treatment of frontal sinusitis
In the case of frontal sinusitis, treatment in adults is aimed at eliminating inflammation in the frontal sinus, reducing the swelling of the mucous membrane, restoring the outflow of purulent sinuses, and suppressing infection.
Drug therapy includes the appointment of:
- vasoconstrictor agents;
- homeopathic medicines.
Restoring the normal outflow of the contents of the sinus is the main goal of treatment. If it can be done at the very beginning of the disease, a cure is possible without the use of antibiotics.
Antibacterial drugs of systemic action, which are used in the treatment of frontal sinusitis, can be divided into these subgroups:
- penicillin (Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Ampisid);
- cephalosporin (Ceftriaxone, Aksetil, Cefataxi);
- macrolide (Macropen, Azithromycin, Spiramycin);
- local (Bioparox, Polidex, Isofra).
Antibiotics at the front are the most standard drugs prescribed by each doctor. But they should be strictly taken by appointment specialist. Antibiotics can be used for both internal and local treatment.
Homeopathic remedies are also used in the treatment of frontitis.
- Sinupret: used to relieve inflammation, liquefies the contents of the sinuses.
- Sinuforte: relieves inflammation, promotes ventilation and opening of the sinuses.
- Cinnabsin: relieves swelling, makes breathing easier and strengthens the immune system.
In addition, the doctor may prescribe drugs to relieve headaches.
Preparations of a vasoconstrictor type will eliminate swelling of the mucous membrane and nasal concha, restoring the communication of the nasal cavity with the frontal sinuses. Drugs eliminate nasal congestion and difficulty nasal breathing. Examples of drugs:
Antipyretic medicine for frontitis should be taken if the temperature has risen above 38.5 degrees. Most drugs also have an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
At temperatures below 38.5 degrees, they are taken in the event of a pronounced disorder of well-being (headaches, weakness, chills). For this purpose, analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used - Ibuklin, Nurofen, Nise.
To dilute the secret accumulated in the sinus and facilitate its discharge, mucolytics are assigned - Acetylcysteine, Fluimucil, Gelomirtol, Sinupret, Cinnabsin.
If you need to cure frontal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties will complement the treatment regimen. For example, fenspiride (Erespal) reduces the formation of biologically active substances responsible for inflammation. In addition, it improves the discharge of mucus from the frontal sinuses.
There are forms of anti-inflammatory drugs for local use. These are glucocorticoid-based drugs - Nasonex, Flixonase. Proposol on the basis of bee products and an aqueous solution of Proargol based on silver help well.
At home, washing the nose is required for any form of frontal sinusitis. To flush out as efficiently as possible, you need to clear your nose and instil the vasoconstrictor drops before the procedure.
- Broth can be prepared from the flowers of pharmaceutical chamomile. It is an effective antimicrobial and antiseptic. Strain, cool and apply for washing every 2-3 hours.
- Treatment of frontitis at home is also carried out by washing the nose with the addition of tea tree oil, salt and soda. You need to prepare such an aqueous solution: 1 teaspoon of salt plus 3 drops of tea tree oil plus a pinch of soda is diluted in 1 cup of warm boiled water.
- Rinse the nose with saline solution (1 tsp. Of sea or table salt in a glass of water) with a rubber spray, syringe, or simply drawing it in with the nostrils. A salt solution of this concentration is hypertonic and contributes to the release of pathological secretion from the sinuses.
- Freshly squeezed juice of celandine mixed with a decoction of chamomile 1: 1. Bury or put into the nose of the turunda moistened with this mixture.
Also at home, inhalations are widely used over pairs of boiled potato tubers in their skins, a mixture of garlic and apple cider vinegar, bay leaf decoction.
At frontal treatment, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are used in the absence of high fever and symptoms of intoxication of the body. Patients are prescribed:
- UHF sessions - up to 12 procedures;
- quartz treatment of the nasal cavity with a quartz lamp - up to 10 procedures;
- warming compresses, Sollux on the forehead - up to 10 sessions;
- rinsing the nose with a cuckoo;
- endonasal sensing;
- Dolphin nasal cleaning.
Surgery may be of the following types:
- Opening the frontal sinus with endoscopic equipment. The most modern method of surgical treatment of sinusitis.
- Puncture of the frontal sinuses for sucking purulent contents and washing the sinuses. Does not leave scars, almost painless, done with a special needle.
- Traditional surgery involves opening the skin over the nose, trepanning, sucking pus, washing. Stitched seams. Traditional surgery comes from the medical practice of treatment of frontal sinusitis.
Patients should know that treatment of frontal sinusitis with folk remedies is ineffective, and in the acute period it is unacceptable, since may be fraught with rhinogenic intracranial and orbital complications. Timely and correct treatment of frontal sinusitis, prescribed by an experienced otorhinolaryngologist, completely relieves the patient from this ailment, and as our experience shows, relapses of the disease are extremely rare.