The kidneys are a paired organ that performs filtration functions in the human body. The activity of almost all organs and systems depends on their health, therefore even people who have no complaints about problems with the urinary system are recommended to undergo an ultrasound scan of the kidneys from time to time.
Sometimes patients, thanks to this procedure, learn about the presence of sand in this organ. More specifically, it is a fine suspension, a precipitate formed from salts. The main reasons for its occurrence will cover in metabolic disorders, malnutrition, the presence of chronic inflammatory lesions of the urinary system, abnormalities in the structure of the urinary tract, etc.
If during the ultrasound the doctor noticed the formation of small grains with clear shadows, then the patient is diagnosed with an ICD of the initial stage.
What it is?
The term "urolithiasis" is familiar to many of us. This is a disease in which stones (stones) are formed in the kidneys, bladder or urinary tract. They disrupt the activity of the organs of the urinary system, making it difficult to remove fluid from the body. Stones are able to grow in size and clog the lumen of the ureter. If there is a complete obturation, it can cause the development of urosepsis, peritonitis and other dangerous complications.
A calculus is a dense formation formed by oxalate, urate, phosphate salts or proteins. Such structures have dimensions of more than 1 mm in diameter, but can reach higher parameters - up to 17 cm in diameter and weighing about 1 kg.
Kidney stones and sand are different things. They differ from each other in volume and structure. So, sand is a suspension of salts and proteins (proteins), which has not yet formed into a full-fledged calculus. Typically, the volume of such structures ranges from 0.8 to 0.9 mm, so even modern diagnostic procedures can not detect such "grains of sand." The appearance of sand in the kidney is considered the initial stage of the development of ICD.
Reasons for the formation of sand in the kidneys
The main reason for the formation of sand in the kidneys is a violation of metabolism, which leads to an increase in the concentration of salts in biological fluids - blood and urine. With a significant increase in salt levels, small particles first form, then stones form. To provoke this process can:
- Heredity. First of all, we are talking about metabolic disorders that are transmitted through genes. For this reason, the risk of developing ICD in people whose close relatives have experienced this pathology increases significantly.
- The composition of the consumed fluid. There is such a thing as "hard water", which contains high concentrations of salts, magnesium, phosphorus. These substances have a negative effect on the state of the urinary system, because they tend to settle on the walls of the urinary tract.
- Living in a humid and hot climate. In this case, the body has a scant amount of sweat, which leads to a delay in the blood of trace elements. And this, in turn, provokes enhanced filtration of these substances by renal tissues.
- Unbalanced nutrition. In the human diet should be meat and vegetable dishes. In this case, one should strictly adhere to their balance, since the prevalence of meat in the menu may provoke acidification of urine. Vegetable food, in turn, can cause urine alkalization. This factor plays an important role in the formation of kidney stones in men, who often prefer protein (meat) food.
- Increased concentration of calciferol in combination with a concomitant shortage of retinol and ascorbic acid.
- An increase in the parathyroid glands, leading to an increase in urinary calcium.
- Diseases of the urinary system, accompanied by stagnation of urine.
The above factors play an important role in the diagnosis of the disease. The presence in the patient's history, at least, one of them suggests that there is sand in the kidneys.
Symptoms in women and men
Because sand grains are too small, they usually do not cause symptoms. Women and men have neither pain nor discomfort. However, under certain circumstances, they can come out of the kidneys, causing damage to the urethra and mucous membranes of the urinary tract.
In this case, you may experience certain symptoms of sand in the kidneys:
- pain during urination;
- feelings of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- lack of relief after urination;
- intense, pronounced, often one-sided pain, which is associated with the mechanical impact of coarse sand particles on the walls of the urinary tract (in this case, the pain can be given to the groin or upper abdomen);
- darkening of the urine, the loss of its transparency;
- sometimes hematuria.
With the development of local inflammation, an increase in body temperature occurs. Arterial hypertension is rarely observed in patients with sand in the kidneys. Increased pressure is due to a violation of the process of removing fluid from the body. For the same reason, patients develop swelling in their arms, legs, face.
It is possible for sand to come out of the kidneys without associated symptoms, but this is a rarity. A similar situation in women and men is observed only with small sizes of sand grains (up to 0.5 mm) and a small number of them. After that, the patient's condition returns to normal, his disturbing symptoms disappear. But the full recovery is not in question, because protein-salt particles can accumulate again, resulting in a relapse of the pathology.
The duration of the process of sand release from the kidneys is different, and depends on several factors:
- the presence of the main pathology;
- functioning of the urinary tract;
- the degree of metabolic disorders.
Sometimes the removal of sand from the body can take from several weeks to several months.
Even with the help of modern instrumental diagnostic methods, it is impossible to identify sand in the kidneys. The dimensions of the "grains of sand" are so small that even supersensitive sensors, waves or X-rays cannot determine their presence. CT, ultrasound and other manipulations have diagnostic information only when a complete stone has formed in the kidney.
If you suspect the presence of sand in the organs of the urinary system is assigned to the urine for salt content. Special attention should be paid to the following parameters:
|Laboratory sign||Norm||Performance changes|
|Red blood cells||In the field of view no more than 2||An increase in the level indicates damage to the inner part of the walls of the urethra, pelvis or ureter.|
|Hyaline Cylinders||Absent||Each of the substances can be one of the components of the "sand". Their presence in the urine indirectly indicates the formation of stones.|
|Amorphous Phosphates / Triplex Phosphates|
Sand in the kidneys practically does not cause the patient inconvenience, does not cause any pain or discomfort. For this reason, many patients go to the doctor already when the urolithiasis phase occurs, accompanied by severe symptoms. In particular, renal colic.
Even less often, doctors purposefully conduct an examination to identify sand in the kidneys. But the patient's belonging to the risk group for the development of ICD is for him a weighty reason to carefully monitor his condition and regularly undergo a medical examination. Such an approach to personal health is the most optimal and effective method for the prevention of urolithiasis in people of all ages.
Sand treatment in the kidney
The treatment of sand in the kidney in women, as well as men, is based on two basic principles:
- Removal of fine-crystalline formations and elimination of unpleasant symptoms of pathology, if any.
- Preventing recurrence of the disease. To do this, it is important to choose the right tactics of treatment, which, above all, will contribute to the restoration of the normal metabolism of salts and proteins in the patient's body.
With this diagnosis, good results are obtained with medication and physiotherapeutic procedures. ads3
How to remove the sand in the kidney with drugs
To remove sand from the kidneys at home, mainly herbal preparations with antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and sometimes antiseptic properties are used.
The most popular, effective and often prescribed are the following preparations from sand in the kidneys:
- Cyston. The drug has a complex effect: under its influence, a spasm of smooth muscles of the urinary tract is stopped, the inflammatory process is eliminated, fluid is actively excreted from the body. In nephrology, this tool is used to bind the small "grains of sand", which can later form a calculus.
- Canephron. This medicine can be taken even for small children and pregnant women. The drug has a plant-based, and has anti-inflammatory, diuretic properties.
- Phytolysin - paste for the preparation of oral suspension. It is used for sand in the kidneys, as well as for the combined types of calculi and inflammatory lesions of the urinary system. Women Fitolysin prescribed to prevent the development of urolithiasis.
All of the above drugs have almost identical mechanism of action. But it may differ depending on the individual characteristics of the patient, which explains their diversity in the pharmaceutical market. In view of this, if one medicine was ineffective, the patient is prescribed another, similar.
Due to the natural composition of such funds practically do not cause side effects. Allergy in their application is also unlikely.
Physical therapy helps to accelerate the release of renal sand in women and men, and also reduces the pain of this process. For this, patients are prescribed:
- Electrostimulation by sinusoidal current, the frequency of which can vary from 2 to 2.5 kHz. During the procedure, the electrodes are placed on the kidney area, after which the device turns on. During the session, the currents affect only the internal tissues, without causing skin irritation. Due to this effect, blood circulation and lymph circulation are stimulated, and local tissue metabolism is normalized.
- Exercise therapy. Particular emphasis in the presence of sand in the kidneys is on fast walking, doing squats and other exercises during which body position changes.
Diet and nutrition
The human diet has a great effect on the acidity of urine and the presence of salt in it. Therefore, the use of large amounts of meat is not recommended for patients with sand in the kidneys. Neglect of this restriction entails acidification of urine, and the formation of urates and oxalates. These elements subsequently form urate and oxalate stones.
Dairy products, on the contrary, alkalize urine and provoke the sedimentation of phosphates - structures that form phosphate stones. In a healthy person, the urine response should be neutral. To achieve this result, you must:
- To exclude fatty foods, offal, alcohol and spicy seasonings in the presence of a large amount of urate salts in the urine. In parallel, it is necessary to limit the consumption of chocolate, legumes, meat dishes. In this case, the basis of the diet should be dairy products, as well as vegetables and fruits.
- Reduce the amount of consumed tea and coffee, completely abandon products such as sorrel, spinach, radishes and rhubarb. This is necessary when detecting oxalate salts in urine. Alkaline mineral waters contribute to the alkalization of urine. As for food products, in such a situation, the use of cereals and whole grain bread will be useful.
- Include in the diet porridge and various meats with a high level of phosphate in urine. But from the dairy and flour should be abandoned. Berry compotes and jelly will be useful, since they tend to acidify urine.
With sand in the kidneys, physical education is not contraindicated, but, on the contrary, is very necessary. Patients with this diagnosis are recommended to engage in:
- athletic walking;
By changing the position of the body, the patient thereby causes the movement of crystals deposited in the urinary tract in the direction of the bladder. But physical exercises alone are not enough to completely get rid of sand in the kidneys, therefore exercise therapy is never used as an independent therapeutic method. Positive results can only be achieved by conducting classes during the course of drug treatment.
Not all patients are guided by the recommendations of doctors in the presence of stones or sand in the kidneys. Many people use alternative medicine to get rid of an unpleasant disease. But it should be borne in mind that such therapy will not be effective - it will give positive results only when a combination of specific prescriptions with drugs prescribed by a doctor.
So, when sand in the kidneys is recommended to apply the following folk recipes.
- Mix in equal proportions dill seeds, mint leaves and cranberries, and knotweed herb. Grind to a state of powder, then take 20 g of the mixture and brew ½ liter of boiling water. Infuse for half a day. Take 75 ml 3 times a day for a month.
- 20 g of the roots of wild rose finely chopped and pour 1 liter of boiling water. Simmer for 10 minutes, then infuse for 10 to 12 hours. Drink half a glass 2 times a day. Consumption of broth should be through a straw, because it can damage the tooth enamel. Therapy is carried out for 2 weeks.
- 3 red apples cut into small pieces and add 1 liter of water. Bring the mixture to a boil and simmer over low heat for half an hour. This drink is recommended to replace tea and coffee. You can drink it in unlimited quantities.
- Dry the carrot seeds and grind them in a coffee grinder. Take a pinch (the amount as at the tip of a knife) three times a day before meals.
In order to avoid the formation of crystals it is necessary, first of all, to establish a metabolism. But it is impossible to do this without finding out the exact reason for its failure. Therefore, first you need to undergo a thorough and comprehensive inspection. This can be done with ultrasound, excretory urography of the kidneys, pneumopyelography, CT or MRI. Moreover, the diagnosis may be to assess the activity of not only the kidneys, but also the parathyroid glands.
In the absence of structural abnormalities in the PSZH and kidneys, the cause of sand is most likely genetic predisposition. In such a situation, it is still impossible to sit back. It is necessary to follow certain rules that will help minimize the risk of the formation of crystals in the organs of the urinary system.
Prevention of the primary and re-development of this disease lies in:
- Compliance with the rules of proper nutrition.It is not necessary to completely exclude any products: you should simply enrich the diet with plant products, and minimize the consumption of junk food. Finished dishes salting is not recommended.
- Compliance with the drinking regime. Per day should be consumed at least 1 - 1.5 liters of fluid.
- Complete rejection of alcohol.
- Passing a course of prophylactic vitamin therapy using multivitamin complexes (Complivita, Multivita, Multitabs, etc.). The duration of taking such funds should be 3 months. You need to take vitamins twice a year - every 6 months.
- Regular delivery of urine for analysis to identify mineral salts and hyaline cylinders. Along with this, you should be examined by a urologist, nephrologist and / or therapist. Such events are recommended to be held every six months.
Such preventive measures will be enough, but the patient should remember that they will give the result only if they are performed throughout life, and not periodically.